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Angelica sinensis / Dong Quai

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Product Code: FPT-01040

Western Single Herb Tinctures


Overview

Dong quai (Angelica sinensis ) root has been used for over a thousand years as a spice, tonic, and medicine in China, Korea and Japan. Although there are few definitive studies on dong quai, it is reputed to relieve constipation, increase red blood cell count (which helps treat anemia), and provide relief from menstrual disorders such as cramps, irregular menstrual cycles, infrequent periods, premenstrual syndrome (PMS), and menopausal symptoms. In Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), it is used for various purposes, including reproductive, circulatory, and respiratory conditions.





Plant Description

Dong quai grows at high altitudes in the cold, damp, mountainous regions of China, Korea, and Japan. This fragrant, perennial plant has smooth purplish stems and bears umbrella-shaped clusters of white flowers and winged fruits in July and August. The yellowish-brown thick-branched roots of the dong quai plant have several medicinal uses. It takes 3 years for the plant to reach maturity, after which the root is harvested and formulated into tablets, powders, and other medicinal forms.





Medicinal Uses and Indications

Dong quai contains compounds that, in laboratory tests, have demonstrated activities that may prove to help reduce pain, dilate blood vessels, and stimulate and relax uterine muscles. Animal studies suggest that dong quai may treat abnormal heart rhythm, prevent accumulation of platelets in blood vessels (contributing to plaque formation -- atherosclerosis), protect the liver, promote urination, act as a mild laxative, promote sleep, and fight infection.

Scientific evidence on the use of dong quai in people is weak. The data consist primarily of laboratory and animal studies, with a few preliminary studies in people. More studies are needed to determine the herb's safety and effectiveness in humans.





Treatment

Reports and studies of possible uses of dong quai include the following:

  • Menopausal symptoms -- some women report relief of symptoms such as hot flashes from this medicinal herb. However, some clinical studies to date do not support the effectiveness of dong quai for menopausal symptoms.
  • PMS -- studies suggest that dong quai offers some value when used in conjunction with other Chinese herbs, particularly black cohosh (Actaea racemosa), to treat PMS.
  • Anemia -- there are individual reports of successful treatment of anemia using dong quai, but to date no studies verify this.
  • Heart disease -- when used in combination with Asian ginseng (Panax ginseng) and astragalus (Astragalus membranaceus), dong quai decreased symptoms of chest pain and improved exercise tolerance in a small group of people with heart disease.
  • Stroke -- a series of reports published in China indicate that the use of dong quai just after a stroke demonstrated a decrease in the amount of brain damage.
  • High blood pressure -- reports indicate that dong quai may lower blood pressure in some people.
  • Ulcers -- animal studies suggest dong quai may soothe ulcers, but studies in people are needed.

Other conditions for which dong quai has been used in people, although studies are still lacking, include:

  • Constipation
  • Migraine headache
  • Pain
  • Liver disorders




Dosage and Administration

Herbs are generally a safe way to strengthen and tone the body's systems. As with any therapy, you should work with your health care provider to get your problem diagnosed before starting any treatment. You may use herbs as dried extracts (capsules, powders, teas), glycerites (glycerine extracts), or tinctures (alcohol extracts). Unless otherwise indicated, you should make teas with 1 tsp. herb per cup of hot water. Steep covered 5 - 10 minutes for leaf or flowers, and 10 - 20 minutes for roots. Drink 2 - 4 cups per day.

In different parts of the world, dong quai is available in a variety of forms, including tablets, powders, and injectable solutions. The latter are used in China and Japan in appropriate hospital or health center settings. Injectable solutions are not available commercially in the United States or other Western countries, and homemade injectable solutions should never be used.

Dong quai should be stored in a cool, dry place and, like all herbal products, be used prior to the expiration date.





Pediatric

Dong quai is not recommended for children because no information relating to appropriate doses of the herb for children has been found in the literature to date.





Adult

Dried herb (raw root) may be boiled or soaked in wine before consuming.

Powdered herb (available in capsules) -- 500 - 600 mg tablets or capsules up to six times daily.

Tincture (1:5 w/v, 70 % alcohol): 40 - 80 drops (equivalent to 2 - 4 mL, there are 5 mL in a teaspoon), three times daily.





Precautions

Drinking the essential oil of dong quai is not recommended because it contains a small amount of cancer-causing substances. The amount of oil in the herb and its extracts is not significant and is not a health concern.

Dong quai should not be used by those who have chronic diarrhea or abdominal bloating.





Side Effects

Dong quai, particularly at high doses, may increase your sensitivity to sunlight and subsequently cause skin inflammation and rashes. People taking dong quai should minimize their exposure to sunlight or use sunscreen while taking the herb.





Pregnancy and Breastfeeding

Dong quai should not be used during pregnancy because it may affect the muscular functioning of the uterus. It should also be avoided by nursing mothers, because there is little information about its effect on the infant through breast milk.





Pediatric Use

Dong quai should not be given to children because of the lack of information regarding its use in this age group.





Interactions and Depletions

Dong quai may interact with the following medications and herbs:

Warfarin

Dong quai may increase the potency and, therefore, potential risks of blood-thinning medications, such as warfarin. It should not be taken with these medicines unless you are under the supervision of a doctor.

Hormone medications

Although there is little research on the use of dong quai with hormone medications -- such as estrogens, progesterones, oral contraceptives, tamoxifen or raloxifene -- health care providers advise against using them together, due to the possibility of adverse effects, unless you are under the supervision of a doctor.

Blood-thinning herbs

Although reported extremely rarely and not published in the scientific literature, the practice of combining dong quai with other herbs that thin the blood could possibly increase the risk of bleeding in some people. The following herbs with this potential when combined with dong quai -- and which should be used only with caution and under the supervision of a doctor include:

  • Feverfew (Tanacetum parthenium)
  • Garlic (Allium sativum)
  • Ginger (Zingiber officinale)
  • Ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba)
  • Ginseng (Panax ginseng)
  • Licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra)
  • Chinese skullcap (Scutellaria baicalensis)
  • Turmeric (Curcuma longa)

Herbs or medications that cause sun sensitivity

Given that dong quai may increase your sensitivity to sunlight, you should not take it with other medications or herbs, such as St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum), that may cause the same reactions.





Supporting Research

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Blumenthal M. Twenty-seven major botanicals and their uses in the United States. In: Eskinazi D, Blumenthal M, Farnsworth N, Riggins CW. Botanical Medicine. Larchmont, NY: Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.; 1999:18-19.

Carroll DG. Nonhormonal therapies for hot flashes in menopause. Am Fam Physician. 2006;73(3):457-64.

Chen SG, Li CC, Zhuang XX. Protective effects of Angeical sinensis injection on myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury in rabbits [in Chinese]. Zhonggou Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi. 1995;15(8):486-488.

Cho CH, Mei QB, Shang P, et al. Study of the gastrointestinal protective effects of polysaccharides from Angelica sinensis in rats. Planta Med. 2000;66(4):348-351.

Circosta C, Pasquale RD, Palumbo DR, Samperi S, Occhiuto F. Estrogenic activity of standardized extract of Angelica sinensis. Phytother Res. 2006;20(8):665-9.

Dai L, Hou J, Cai H. Using ligustrazini and angelica sinensis treat the bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in rats [in Chinese]. Zhonghua Jie He He Hu Xi Za Zhi. 1996;19(1):26-28.

DerMarderosian A, ed. Dong Quai. In: Facts and Comparisons The Review of Natural Products. St. Louis, MO: Wolters Kluwer Co.: 1997.

Foster S, Tyler VE. Tyler's Honest Herbal: A Sensible Guide to the Use of Herbs and Related Remedies. 4th ed., Binghamton, NY: Haworth Herbal Press; 1999.

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Hirata JD, Swiersz LM, Zell B, Small R, Ettinger B. Does dong quai have estrogenic effects in postmenopausal women? A double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Fertil Steril. 1997;68(6):981-986.

Israel D, Youngkin E. Herbal therapies for perimenopausal and menopausal complaints. Pharmacother. 1997:17(5):970-984.

LaValle JB, Krinsky DL, Hawkins EB, et al. Natural Therapeutics Pocket Guide. Hudson, OH:LexiComp; 2000: 425-426.

Liao JZ, Chen JJ, Wu ZM, Guo WQ, Zhao LY, Qin LM, et al. Clinical and experimental studies of coronary heart disease treated with Yi-qi Huo-xue injection. J Tradit Chin Med. 1989;9(3):193-198.

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Shaw CR. The perimenopausal hot flash: epidemiology, physiology, and treatment. Nurse Pract. 1997;22(3):55-56, 61-66.

Shi YM, Wu QZ. Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura in children treated with replenishing qi and tonifying kidney and the changes in thrombocyte aggregative function. [Article in Chinese]. Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi 1991;11(1):14-16.

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